IT infrastructure in software companies

In this post i am gonna tell you, about how IT infrastructure is organized in Multinational  software companies.This post can also be used as a reference for non software companies also.With technology infrastructure i mean how various people are connected with each other , how mails and other message applications are organized .We are not going into details of development infrastructure.We are only going into details of the underlying support infrastructure.

So what are the requirements of IT infrastructure ?

First of all IT infrastructure should connect each and every person of the company irrespective of office location.

IT infrastructure should also connect each and every department of the company with each employee of the company irrespective of office location.

The communication should be fast .The communication should not be delayed.

The communication channel should be broad . If one person wants to share a file with other person , proper channel must be there .

It should be secure .

Various infrastructure channels and tools must be accessed at a click of a mouse.

Various software and hardware tools which are used to implement this IT infrastructure.

Lets start with core of IT infrastructure .The core consists of intranet.

Suppose my company is located in different locations across the world.Each of this location can contain one or more offices. The systems in these offices are connected to each other . The offices in one location are connected to each other

likewise all offices in all other locations are connected .These locations which may spread across the world are also interconnected.This forms the intranet of a company.

Basic intranet is comprised of hardware and software .Hardware includes cable , servers , routers and various other equipments . Software comprises of servers like unix or windows server and some other tools which are basically hidden from the end employee.

But this is the core and nothing to do with most of employees except IT department which handles and maintain these resources.

Applications for IT infrastructure

Most important application in IT infrastructure is email.Every company maintains it email policy .Each employee of the company is given a company email id like employee.name@company.com.

Now the email technology is privately employed by company.For example a company may choose to microsoft platform to implement their email infrastructure .Example of software are microsoft exchange sever and microsoft outlook.

IT infrastructure in software companies
IT infrastructure in software companies

Besides email company maintains a chat type software known as office communicator . This software can be used to communicate with any employee of the company. Besides chatting this software can be used to share files , share screens ,allowing remote control etc .One such example of this tool is Microsoft lync.

IT infrastructure in software companies
IT infrastructure in software companies

Next for security purposes , a desktop and server monitoring tool is also installed in each and every system.This tool maintains logs of system usage.

Another thing is that each and every employee has an employee id . This id is synchronized with your company email id.

You can use this id to login into your system and other software tools.

Another important hardware which is connected to company intranet is voice over ip phone .Most of the employees are provided with ip phone .

Another software tool is support system .This software is maintained at company intranet .Whenever you need help or resource with any department of company raise a call (known as ticket ) on this application,Your query will be solved in 24 hrs max by the concerned department employee.From hairpin to airplane ticket anything can be availed with this system.

Now suppose you are not in any company office and want to access your mails or in short company intranet.How will you do that ? You can use internet to connect to your company intranet with vpn.

SAP tools are used to maintain employee information like his salary and other information.

Remember intranet is protected by very powerful firewalls and everything is logged .

So this forms the brief view of technology infrastructure of most companies.

For more articles like this visit www.crazylearner.org

How to bye pass Firewall 2

Welcome back in section of How to bye pass firewall. Earlier we discuss about Identification of Firewall in post How to bye pass Firewall. In this post we discuss about tools to bye pass the firewall and study about Its technique.

How to bye pass Firewall 2
How to bye pass Firewall

Breaching Firewalls

One of the easiest and most common ways for an attacker to slip by a firewall is by installing network software on an internal system, which communicates by using a port address permitted by the firewall’s configuration

  • A popular port is TCP port 80, which is normally used by web server
  • Many firewalls permit traffic using port 80 by default

Byepassing a firewall using HTTP Tunnel

Httptunnel creates a bi-directional virtual data path tunneled in HTTP requests. The requests can be sent via an HTTP proxy, if desired.

Placing Backdoors through Firewall

The Reverse WWW Shell
This backdoor should work through any firewall that allows users to surf the WWW. A program is run on the internal host, which produces a child everyday at a special time.

  • For the firewall, this child acts like a user; using the browser client to surf the Internet. In reality, this child executes a local shell, and connects to the WWW server operated by the hacker via a legitimate-looking http request, and sends a stand-by signal
  • The legitimate-looking answer of the WWW server operated by the hacker is, in reality, the command the child will execute on its machine in the local shell.

Hiding behind a Covert channel : Loki

LOKI is an information tunneling program.
LOKI uses Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo response packets to carry its payload. ICMP echo response packets are normally received by the Ping program, and many firewalls permit the responses to pass

Simple shell commands are used to tunnel inside ICMP_ECHO/ICMP_ECHOREPLY and DNS name lookup query/reply traffic. To the network protocol analyzer, this traffic seems like ordinary packets of the corresponding protocol. However, to the correct listener ( the LOKI2 daemon), the packets are recognized for what they really are.

Tools to Bye Pass Firewall

007 Shell

007 Shell is a covert shell ICMP tunneling program. It works similar to LOKI. 007 Shell works by putting data streams in the ICMP message past the usual 4-bytes (8-bit type, 8-bit code, and 16-bit checksum)

ICMP Shell

ICMP Shell (ISH) is a telnet-like protocol. It provides the capability of connecting a remote host to an open shell, using only ICMP for input and output The ISH server runs as a daemon on the server side. When the
server receives a request from the client, it will strip the header and look at the ID field. If it matches the server’s ID, then it will pipe the data to “/bin/sh.” It will then read the results from the pipe and send them back to
the client, where the client then prints the data to stdout.

UltraSurf (Download)

 

tools-How to bye pass Firewall

ultrasurf

A free circumvent software available online, perhaps powerful enough to bypass any industry level firewall at its default configuration.It enables users to browse any website freely just the same as using the regular browser while it automatically searches the highest speed proxy servers in the background.

AckCmd

AckCmd is a client/server combination for Windows 2000 that opens a remote command prompt to another system (running the server part of AckCmd). It communicates using only TCP ACK segments. This way the client component is able to directly contact the server component through the firewall.

Tor(Download)

tools used for byepass firewall
tools used for byepass firewall

Tor is a system intended to enable online anonymity, composed of client software and a network of servers which can hide information about users’ locations. Tor provides perfect anonymity it makes it more difficult to trace internet traffic to the user, including visits to Web sites, online posts, instant messages, and other communication forms.

Hope you enjoy above sessions. Keep visiting 🙂

 

 

 

How to bye pass Firewall

How to bye pass Firewall

To bye pass the Firewall you must know the firewall identification means full information about Firewall like type , version , and rules of almost every firewall on a Network.

How to bye pass Firewall
How to bye pass Firewall

These are three technique for Firewall Identification

 

  • Port scanning
  • Firewalking
  • Banner grabbing

Port Scanning (How to bye pass Firewall)

Some firewalls have obvious signatures
  • Check Point’s FireWall-1 listens on TCP ports 256, 257, 258, and 259
  • Check Point NG listens on TCP ports 18210, 18211, 18186, 18190, 18191, and 18192 as well
  • Microsoft’s Proxy Server usually listens on TCP ports 1080 and 1745

Here we are providing you , the ways by which you can conceal your Scanning

  • Randomize target ports
  • Randomize target addresses
  • Randomize source ports
  • Distributed source scans
  • Using multiple computers on the Internet, each taking a small portion of the scanning targets
These techniques will fool most IDS systems with default rules.
And here are the Countermeasure of above
  • Block unneeded ICMP packets at your border router
  • Use an Intrusion Detection System, such as Snort
  • IPPL is a Linux daemon that detects port scans (link Ch 901)
  • Cisco routers have ACL rules to block scans

Firewalking (How to bye pass Firewall)

Firewalking is a method to collect information from remote network that are behind firewalls. Firewalk Looks Through a  Firewall

How to bye pass Firewall
How to bye pass Firewall
 In above figure  , Suppose The target is Router3
We want to know which ports Router3 blocks, and which ports it allows through.
Phase 1: Hopcount Ramping
  1. First Firewalk sends out a series of packets towards the destination with TTL=1, 2, 3, …
  2. When the target (Router3) is reached, that determines the TTL for the next phase
  3. In this example, the Target is at TTL=3, so all future packets will use TTL=4

 

Phase 2: Firewalking

  1. TCP or UDP paclets are sent from the scanning host to the Destination
  2. They all have TTL=4

Firwalking Countermesure

  • You can block “ICMP TTL expired” packets at the gateway
  • But this may negatively affect its performance
  • Because legitimate clients connecting will never know what happened to their connection

Banner Grabbing

Banner are messages sent out by network services while connecting to the service.They announce which service is running on System

Banner grabbing is simple method of OS detection, its also help to find services runs by Firewall. there are three measure services send out through it is TELNET , FTP and Web Server.

Banner Grabbing Countermeasures

  • Eliminate the open port on your firewall
– A management port should not be open externally anyway
  • If you must leave the ports open on the external interface of your firewall
–Change the banner to display a legal warning reminding the offender that all attempts to connect will be logged

How to bye pass Firewall

Breaching  Firewall

Byepassing a firewall using HTTP Tunnel

Placing Backdoors through Firewall

Hiding behind a Covert channel : Loki

The above topic and tools to bye pass firewall cover in next post as How to bye pass Firewall 2

FIREWALL

This post  will familiarize you with Firewall , bypass the firewall and tools to bye pass it.

WHAT IS FIRE WALL?

A hardware device and/or software program which sits between the Internet and the intranet, internet, of an organization

It restricts information that comes to your computer from other computers, giving you more control over the data on your computer and providing a line of defense against people or programs that try to connect to your computer without invitation.

In fact, that’s why its called a firewall. Its job is similar to a physical firewall that keeps a fire from spreading from one area to the next.

what is firewall
what is firewall

Firewall objective

Its main objectives are to filter:
what should come in the intranet (inbound traffic) and
what should come out of the intranet (outbound traffic).

what is firewall
what is firewall

TYPES OF FIREWALL

Packet Filtering Firewall : They are usually part of a router and each packet is compared to a set of criteria before it is forwarded, dropped, or a message is sent to the originator.

what is firewall
what is firewall

Circuit level Gateway : they monitor TCP handshaking between packets to determine whether a requested session is legitimate. Information passed to remote computer through a circuit level gateway appears to have originated from the gateway. On the other hand, they do not filter individual packets.

what is firewall
what is firewall

Application level gateways : also called proxies, are application specific. An application level gateway that is configured to be a web proxy will not allow any ftp, gopher, telnet or other traffic through. They offer a high level of security, but have a significant impact on network performance.

application-level-gateway

 

Stateful Multilayer Firewalls : combine aspects of the other three types of firewalls. They filter packets at the network layer and evaluate contents of  packets at the application layer. They allow direct connection between client and host, and they rely on algorithms to recognize and process application layer data instead of running application specific proxies.

 

Network-performance-firewall

Firewall defense your network using one of two access denial methodologies:

  • may allow all traffic through unless it meets certain criteria, or
  • may deny all traffic unless it meets certain criteria

And Criteria to be configured for  firewall

  • PROTOCOL.
  • DOMAIN NAME.
  • PORTS
  • IP ADDRESS

criteria-for-firewall

So these are four criteria on which your network should be defensed by Anti virus. The next post will be on How to bye pass Firewall